Indian Journal of Dermatopathology and Diagnostic Dermatology

CASE REPORTS
Year
: 2022  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 64--66

Clinico-dermatoscopic and histopathological evaluation of a case of generalized lichen nitidus


Sunanda Arun Mahajan, Surender Singh, Yallappa Ramachandrappa Kabbannavar, Vidya D Kharkar 
 Department of Dermatology, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College and the King Edward Memorial (KEM) Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra, India

Correspondence Address:
Surender Singh
Department of Dermatology, Seth Gordhandas Sunderdas Medical College (GSMC) and the King Edward Memorial (KEM) Hospital, Ward 17/18, Mumbai 400012, Maharashtra
India

Abstract

Lichen nitidus (LN) is a rare asymptomatic skin disease composed of numerous tiny, shiny, flat papules mainly over the chest, forehead, neck, forearm, and glans penis. They are of two types based on distribution, localized which is more common compared to generalized. Dermoscopy helps in differentiating LN from other similar dermatoses such as lichen planus, keratosis pilaris, follicular eczema, lichen spinulosus, which is non-invasive. We describe a 15-year-old female with generalized lichen nitidus with palms, soles, and nail involvement with dermoscopic features and histopathological correlation.



How to cite this article:
Mahajan SA, Singh S, Kabbannavar YR, Kharkar VD. Clinico-dermatoscopic and histopathological evaluation of a case of generalized lichen nitidus.Indian J Dermatopathol Diagn Dermatol 2022;9:64-66


How to cite this URL:
Mahajan SA, Singh S, Kabbannavar YR, Kharkar VD. Clinico-dermatoscopic and histopathological evaluation of a case of generalized lichen nitidus. Indian J Dermatopathol Diagn Dermatol [serial online] 2022 [cited 2022 Dec 9 ];9:64-66
Available from: https://www.ijdpdd.com/text.asp?2022/9/2/64/359773


Full Text



Lichen nitidus (LN), a rare skin disease of unknown etiology and generalized LN, is even rarer. It is more common in children and young adults. There are very few cases reported with the role of dermoscopy in LN, which differentiates it from other similar dermatoses such as lichen planus, keratosis pilaris, follicular eczema, and lichen spinulosus, which is noninvasive. Here we present a case of a 15-year-old girl with minimally itchy tiny raised lesions all over the body of 6-month duration. On examination, there were multiple skin-colored flat and shiny, pinhead-sized papules mainly affecting the neck, face, upper extremities, lower extremities, trunk, palms, and soles [Figure 1][Figure 2][Figure 3]. Oral cavity was normal; fingernails showed longitudinal ridging and pits. Dermoscopy (Dinolite, USA) was performed, which on the nonpolarized mode showed loss of skin markings at site of lesion [Figure 4]B] and on the polarized mode it showed multiple and white well-circumscribed circular areas with an indistinct brown shadow reflecting from white areas [[Figure 5]A] and linear vessels [[Figure 4]A]. Dermoscopy of the palmoplantar lesions revealed well-defined depressions surrounded by ring-shaped, silvery-white parallel scales [[Figure 5]B]. Dermoscopy of nails showed longitudinal ridges [[Figure 6]A]. Baseline investigations were normal. A biopsy from the papule on the back and right sole showed lymphocytes, few epithelioid cells, and plasma cells in the papillary dermis. Overlying epidermis was flattened and showed downward extension of rete ridges at the lateral margins of the infiltrate, giving a characteristic “claw clutching a ball” picture [[Figure 6]B]. The patient was given antihistamines and moisturizer and is under follow-up and planned for narrowband ultraviolet B (NB-UVB).{Figure 1} {Figure 2} {Figure 3} {Figure 4} {Figure 5} {Figure 6}

LN is a rare localized lichenoid dermatosis that was first described by Pinkus in 1907 of unknown etiology[1] characterized by the presence of multiple tiny, flat, shiny papules mainly over the neck, forehead, forearms, abdomen, and penis. The generalized form of LN is still rarer with unpredictable clinical course.[2],[3] Dermoscopy plays a vital role in the diagnosis of LN, which on nonpolarizing mode shows loss of skin markings and on polarizing mode shows multiple, white well-circumscribed areas with an indistinct brown shadow reflecting from white areas.[4] Dermoscopy of palms and soles shows linear scales in parallel, discontinued by oval, well-defined depressions surrounded by ring-shaped silvery white scales. Nail involvement shows longitudinal ridges, pits, and ragged cuticle on dermoscopy. Histopathologically, white areas correspond to epidermal acanthosis and brown shadow corresponds to the foci of lymphocytes and epithelioid cells in the dermal papilla.[5] LN is asymptomatic and self-resolving; hence, treatment is not necessary in most cases. Indications for treatment are persistent, generalized, pruritic, and cosmetic purpose. Treatment includes topical and systemic corticosteroids, psoralen and UVA (PUVA), ultraviolet A/ultraviolet B (UVA/UVB) with corticosteroids, diphencyclopropenone, selective H1 antagonist, itraconazole, isoniazid, acitretin, and NB-UVB. In conclusion, dermoscopy is a noninvasive tool for a dermatologist, which provides vital clues in diagnosing various entities faster and can avoid the need for biopsy.

 



Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

Declaration of patient consent

The authors certify that they have obtained all appropriate patient consent forms. In the form the patient(s) has/have given his/her/their consent for his/her/their images and other clinical information to be reported in the journal. The patients understand that their names and initials will not be published and due efforts will be made to conceal their identity, but anonymity cannot be guaranteed.

References

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2Al-Mutairi N, Hassanein A, Nour-Eldin O, Arun J Generalized lichen nitidus. Pediatr Dermatol 2005;22:158-60.
3Chen W, Schramm M, Zouboulis CC Generalized lichen nitidus. J Am Acad Dermatol 1997;36:630-1.
4Malakar S, Save S, Mehta P Brown shadow in lichen nitidus: A dermoscopic marker! Indian Dermatol Online J 2018;9: 479-80.
5Reddy PK, Sumathy TK, Shyamprasad AL, Shivaswamy KN, Suparna MY Clinical, dermoscopic, and histopathological correlation of lichenoid dermatoses. Indian J Dermatopathol Diagn Dermatol 2019;6:75-82.